What are the hard-to-abate sectors?

From the first steps forward in industrialisation and the use of steam power – the first Industrial Revolution – we’ve been building, perfecting and deeply embedding an industrial, societal and economic tree based upon fossil fuels.

Often traced as far back as 1760 in its first instances, through to circa 1820-1840, the Industrial Revolution is widely considered a major turning point in history and material advancement. Europe was at the heart of this revolution in the 18th and 19th century, as the transformation to new (steam) power sources, newly mechanised manufacturing processes and whole new ways of life and industry emerged.

It was a transition that saw mankind not only move from hand production methods to machines, but discover and embrace new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, as well as the increasing use of steam and water power. Mechanised factory systems came to the fore; output greatly increased; the textiles sector was the first to use these modern manufacturing methods and became dominant industry in terms of employment, value of output and capital invested; while the rate of population growth also exploded.

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